13. The reaction A (l) R(g) is allowed to reach equilibrium conditions in an autoclave. At equilibrium, there are two phases, one a pure liquid phase of A and the other a vapor phase of A, R and S. Initially A alone is present. The number of degrees of freedom are

30. For multicomponent multiple phases to be in equilibrium at the same pressure and temperature, the __________ of each component must be same in all phases.

31. Chemical potential (an intensive property) of a substance is a force that drives the chemical system to equilibrium and is equal to its partial molar properties. The reatio of chemical potential to free energy of a pure substance at oconstant temperature and pressure is

40. The molar excess Gibbs free energy, gE, for a binary liquid mixture at T and P is given by, (gE/RT) = A . x₁. x₂, where A is a constant. The corresponding equation for ln y₁, where y₁ is the activity co-efficient of component 1, is

57. A solid metallic block weighing 5 kg has an initial temperature of 500°C. 40 kg of water initially at 25°C is contained in a perfectly insulated tank. The metallic block is brought into contact with water. Both of them come to equilibrium. Specific heat of block material is 0.4 kJ.kg⁻¹. K⁻¹. Ignoring the effect of expansion and contraction and also the heat capacity to tank, the total entropy change in kJ.kg⁻¹ , K⁻¹ is

77. When liquid and vapour phase of multi-component system are in equilibrium (at a given temperature and pressure), then chemical potential of each component is

82. For water at 300°C, it has a vapour pressure 8592.7 kPa and fugacity 6738.9 kPa Under these conditions, one mole of water in liquid phase has a volume of 25.28 cm³ and that in vapour phase in 391.1 cm³.Fugacity of water (in kPa) at 9000 kPa will be

89. The following heat engine produces power of 100000 kW. The heat engine operates between 800 K and 300 K. It has a thermal efficiency equal to 50% of that of the Carnot engine for the same temperature. The rate at which heat is absorbed from the hot reservoir is

93. High pressure steam is expanded adiabati-cally and reversibly through a well insulated turbine, which produces some shaft work. If the enthalpy change and entropy change across the turbine are represented by ΔH and ΔS respectively for this process:

96. The expression for the work done for a reversible polytropic process can be used to obtain the expression for work done for all processes, except reversible __________ process.

120. For a stable phase at constant pressure and temperature, the fugacity of each component in a binary system __________ as its mole fraction increases.

121. Fugacity of a component in an ideal gas mixture is euqal to the partial pressure of that component in the mixture. The fugacity of each component in a stable homogeneous solution at contant pressure and temperature __________ as its mole fraction increases.

126. While dissolving a gas into a liquid at a constant temperature, the ratio of the concentration of the gas in the solution phase and in the gaseous phase is

134. The effect of changing the evaporator temperature on COP as compared to that of changing the condenser temperature (in vapour compression refrigeration system) is

135. “The fugacity of a gas in a mixture is equal to the product of its mole fraction and its fugacity in the pure state at the total pressure of the mixture”. This is

136. The partial molar enthalpy of a component in an ideal binary gas mixture of composition Z, at a temperature T and pressure P, is a function only of

150. When a system in equilibrium is subjected to a change in temperature, pressure or concentration, the equilibrium is displaced in a direction which tends to undo the effect of the change. This is called the

151. Dryness fraction of wet steam is defined as the ratio of mass of vapour in the mixture to the mass of mixture __________ calorimeter is not used for measuring the dryness fraction of steam.

152. Steam undergoes isentropic expansion in a turbine from 5000 kPa and 400°C (entropy = 6.65 kJ/kg K) to 150 kPa) (entropy of saturated liquid = 1.4336 kJ/kg . K, entropy of saturated vapour = 7.2234 kJ/kg. K) The exit condition of steam is

165. In vapour compression refrigeration system, if the evaporator temperature and the condenser temperatures are -13°C and 37°C respetively, the Carnot COP will be

169. At 60° C, vapour pressure of methanol and water are 84.562 kPa and 19.953 kPa respectively. An aqueous solution of methanol at 60° C exerts a pressure of 39.223 kPa; the liquid phase and vapour phase mole fractions of methanol are 0.1686 and 0.5714 respectively. Activity co-efficient of methanol is

178. The theoretical minimum work required to separate one mole of a liquid mixture at 1 atm, containing 50 mole % each of n- heptane and n- octane into pure compounds each at 1 atm is

180. If the molar heat capacities (Cp or Cv) of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction are identical, then, with the increase in temperature, the heat of reaction will

181. If the vapour pressure at two temperatures of a solid phase in equilibrium with its liquid phase are known, then the latent heat of fusion can be calculated by the